Why did the success of the Crusaders in 1099 not lead to the European colonization of the entire Middle East, just as in the 16th century the Great Geographical Discoveries led to the colonization of America, Africa, Asia?
In the 12th century, Europeans did not have a noticeable cultural superiority over Muslims. In contrast, science, technology and politics in the cities of the Middle East were more developed than in Western Europe. After the Renaissance, the Europeans acquired a military-technical superiority over the Muslims.
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.