In September 1944, at a meeting between US President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in Hyde Park, an agreement was concluded, according to which the possibility of using atomic weapons against Japan was envisaged.
By the summer of 1945, the United States of America, with the support of Great Britain and Canada, within the framework of the Manhattan Project, completed preparatory work for the creation of the first operational models of nuclear weapons.
After three and a half years of direct US participation in World War II, about 400,000 Americans were killed, about half of them in the war against Japan. In April-June 1945, during the operation to seize the Japanese island of Okinawa, more than 12 thousand American soldiers died, 39 thousand were wounded (Japanese losses ranged from 93 to 110 thousand soldiers and over 100 thousand civilians). that an invasion of Japan itself would lead to losses many times greater than those of Okinawan. During its second meeting in Los Alamos (May 10-11, 1945), the Targeting Committee recommended Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama and Kokura as targets for the use of atomic weapons, the Committee rejected the idea of using these weapons against purely military targets as there was a chance to miss a small square not surrounded by a large urban area
Psychological factors such as achieving the maximum psychological effect against Japan, the first use of a weapon should be significant enough for international recognition of its importance, to be of great importance in targeting.
The committee pointed out that Kyoto was favored by the fact that its people had a higher level of education and thus were better able to appreciate the value of weapons.
Hiroshima was of such a size and location that, given the focusing effect of the surrounding hills, much of the city could be destroyed.
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