Polyploidy is a hereditary change characterized by a multiple increase in the haploid set of chromosomes in the cells of the body. Most cultivated plants are polyploid, as they contain more than two sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy occurs as a result of a violation of the chromosome separation in mitosis or meiosis under the influence of environmental factors (ionization, low temperatures, chemicals), occurs in nature and is caused in experiments. Organisms having such a set of chromosomes in cells are called polyploid. Polyploids are often characterized by large sizes, resistance to adverse environmental conditions, and an increased content of a number of economically valuable substances. Therefore, polyploidy is widely used in plant breeding. In animal breeding, this method is not used, because polyploidy causes a violation of the proportions of individual organs. This is unacceptable for animals because of the difficulty in their movement, dysregulation of organs and the body as a whole.
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