Description plan for the natural zone of the Tundra: 1. Geographical location 2. Climate 3. Soils

Description plan for the natural zone of the Tundra:
1. Geographical location
2. Climate
3. Soils
4. Vegetation
5. Animal world
6 Appearance of the zone
7. Human use

The word “tundra” comes from “tunturi”, which in translation from the language of the Sami people means “hills” – low peaks that are not covered with forest. This zone is formed along the northern coast of Russia. Arctic and subarctic climatic zones. Polar day and polar night, thin but dense snow cover, strong winds, short cool summer, many lakes and swamps, no trees (dominance of mosses, lichens, shrubs – lingonberry, blueberry, cloudberry, dwarf birch). Many migratory birds in summer. Typical animals: lemmings, arctic foxes, reindeer, snowy owls.
The tundra is beautiful twice a year. The first time is in August, when cloudberries ripen. The color of the tundra changes from green to red and then to yellow. When ripe, cloudberries turn yellow. The second time is in September, when the leaves of birch and willow turn yellow. Dwarf birch and willows behave in the same way as their “sisters” – birch and willow in the forest zone of Russia.
“Golden Autumn” is beautiful in the tundra too. Tundra is a place for a mushroom picker. The mushrooms are just below the dwarf birches and willows, and are very visible. They say that mushrooms in the tundra grow taller than trees. This is almost true, considering that the “trees” are 15–30 cm high. The most pleasant circumstance for a mushroom picker is that mushrooms are not wormy due to the cold weather.
A real forest also grows in the tundra, but only in river valleys, since this is a depression in the relief and they are protected from the wind. But even here the trees are not tall and sparse. Closer to the tundra, the trees have a flag shape (branches grow on the leeward side, which is protected from the wind by the trunk). The trunks of the tree often have a dense undergrowth of branches at the bottom – where in winter snow covers the branches. Above 10–15 cm, the trunk is bare.
The soils are tundra-gley, have a small layer of humus – 5 cm, waterlogged, therefore infertile.
There are a lot of fish in the rivers and lakes, so the local population is engaged in fishing, in winter – hunting for fur animals, reindeer are raised, and they graze them on pastures all year round.

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