Features of the structure, reproduction and vital activity of insects, which allowed them to become a thriving group of animals.

1. The ability to fly, allowing insects to quickly populate new territories, overcome water spaces and other obstacles; great mobility, provided by developed striated muscles, jointed limbs.
2. A multilayer chitinized cuticle with an outer layer containing wax-like and fatty substances that protects the body from moisture loss, mechanical damage, and ultraviolet rays.
3. A variety of oral apparatus, allowing the use of various feed material, which reduces interspecific competition and helps maintain a high number of insects.
4. The small size of insects, ensuring survival and contributing to the creation of the necessary conditions for existence even in very small spaces (small fouling on rocks, cracks in the bark of trees, soil, etc.).
5. A variety of breeding methods — except for bisexual, parthenogenetic reproduction (in aphids), at the larval stage (in individual species of dipterans, beetles and bugs). Some parasitic hymenopterans have polyembryony (asexual reproduction at the stage of dividing zygote), which allows them to sharply increase the number of descendants.
6. High fecundity and ability to mass reproduction: the average number of eggs laid is 200-300. Some insects lay a small number of eggs, but give several generations (up to 10 or more) during the growing season. This ability causes the mass appearance of many insects (grubs, flies, mosquitoes, locusts, etc.).
7. A variety of types of postembryonic development: incomplete, complete metamorphosis and other types of transformation. In the phase of the larva, growth and development of the individual occurs, in the phase of the adult individual, reproduction and distribution. The ability to survive adverse conditions in a state of diapause – a temporary physiological rest.
8. Change of habitat at different stages of ontogenesis: larvae live in the aquatic environment, adults in the ground-air (for example, dragonflies, mosquitoes, etc.), which reduces intraspecific competition for food, space for life and contributes to better insect survival.
9. Respiratory organs — tracheas — allow for intensive gas exchange and, if necessary (during flight), to maintain a high level of vital processes.
10. A well-developed nervous system, diverse and perfect sense organs, complex innate forms of individual and social behavior are instincts. Features of the structure and processes of life. The body of the insects is divided into the head, chest and abdomen. On the head is a pair of jointed antennae, a pair of upper and two pairs of lower jaws. In addition, they have a pair of complex faceted eyes, and many have simple eyes. The structure of the oral apparatus is diverse and corresponds to the nature of nutrition. The gnawing mouth apparatus is considered to be the initial one, from which the remaining types arose as a result of food specialization: stitching-sucking (in mosquitoes, bugs, aphids, etc.), sucking (in Lepidoptera), licking (in bees, bumblebees), licking (in flies) . The gnawing mouth apparatus is possessed, in particular, by insects of the orders of the rigid and orthopterans, as well as many larvae.

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