How is energy transferred from the interior of the Sun to the photosphere?

Energy is transferred by convection. The reason for the occurrence of convection in the outer layers of the Sun is the same as in a vessel with boiling water: the amount of energy coming from the heater is much greater than that which is removed by thermal conductivity. Therefore, the substance begins to move and itself begins to transfer heat. The convective zone extends almost to the most visible surface of the Sun (photosphere).

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