In which cases the luminaries flicker, and in which they do not, and why: stars when observed with the naked eye, planets when observed with the naked eye, stars when observed through a large telescope, planets when observed through a large telescope.
The phenomenon of flickering is associated with the inhomogeneities of the earth’s atmosphere through which light from celestial objects passes. Chaotically moving in the atmosphere, refracting and absorbing light in a different way than neighboring regions, they cause short-term tremors and changes in the brightness of the luminaries. The angular sizes of irregularities are small, but larger than the apparent sizes of stars, and we observe their twinkling. The radiation of planets with a significant angular diameter passes through several similar cells at once, and the distortions introduced by each of them compensate each other on average. Therefore, the planets twinkle much fainter than stars.
If stars are observed through a telescope, the lens of which is much larger than the human eye, then different parts of the lens will receive star radiation passing through different cells of the atmosphere. Their effect is also compensated, and the stars practically do not twinkle when observed through a telescope. Moreover, when viewed through a telescope, planets do not flicker.
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