The steppe zone is located south of the forest zone. The average temperatures of the winter months are from 0⁰С to -20⁰С, and the summer months are from + 20⁰С to + 28⁰С. The annual value of heat energy resources is more than 8000 MJ / m² per year. The vegetative period of plants is an average of 160 days. The annual rainfall is 250-300 mm. K (humidification) = 0.4-0.5
The relief is a plain with slight fluctuations in elevation. Annual stock – 10-15 mm. The main soils are chernozems, which have increased natural fertility, high content in the upper layers of humus.
A characteristic feature of the steppe is the treelessness of vast plains covered with rich grassy vegetation.
Fauna: consumers of green and underground parts of plants — voles, hamsters, ground squirrels, hares, and predators feeding on them — fox-corsac, weasel prevail. The species of wintering mammals and a small number of sedentary and wintering birds are characteristic.
The natural resources of the steppe zone are favorable for the cultivation of cereals, especially spring wheat. The presence of meadows with sparse grass makes it possible to engage in sheep farming.
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