Natural zone description plan – tropical rainforest.
1. Geographical location
5. Animal world
6 Appearance of the zone
7. Human use
On either side of the equator, between the northern and southern tropics, there is a tropical rainforest.
In this area of the Earth, the average air temperature is + 25 ° C, the annual precipitation exceeds 2000mm, and they fall evenly throughout the year. Rainforests are found in the Amazon Basin in South America, in Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and in the Congo Basin, and in Asia in the Malay Archipelago. They grow where there is frequent and regular rainfall, the famous tropical showers when from the sky with a loud noise rushing streams, rivers of water. For one and a half to two hours, more precipitation falls here than, for example, we have for several months. The abundance of warmth and moisture, the dazzling sun, standing directly overhead at midday, the absence of a dry period – all this creates extremely favorable conditions for vegetation, especially woody. The richest natural area, the forest is always green and very dense. In just 10-15 years, tropical trees reach a height of 30-40 m and a thickness of up to 1 m. Trees of our climate reach such sizes only by 150-200 years.
The tropical rainforests are characterized by:
variety of flora,
the presence of 4-5 tree layers, the absence of shrubs, a large number of vines
predominance of evergreen trees with large evergreen leaves, poorly developed bark, buds, not protected by kidney scales, in monsoon forests – deciduous trees;
the formation of flowers, and then fruit directly on the trunks and thick branches
In tropical rainforests, it rains almost daily. Powerful streams of water flow down the branches and trunks of trees, the water stagnates in the forks of the branches, and this makes it possible for epiphytes to settle here. In addition, the epiphytes themselves, strengthening on the branches, retain water by the stems and roots.
Vines are a characteristic plant in the rainforest. They grow extremely fast and easily climb the tops of the tallest trees. Throwing flexible shoots from tree to tree, vines capture dozens of trees. From below, only thick trunks of lianas are visible, wriggling like giant boas, and their leaves are lost high among the branches of trees. Climbing into the upper parts of the crown, vines with their leaves and shoots take away part of the light and this cause significant harm to trees. Even more dangerous for trees are lianas, which tightly wrap around tree trunks and thus deprive them of the opportunity to thicken. Such lianas are called strangler vines.
Most animals live in trees: monkeys, bats, snakes, lizards, sloth. The world of birds is amazingly colorful.
The soils are red-yellow ferralite, humus does not accumulate in them, it is immediately absorbed by plants.
Replacement of wild forests with cultivated plantations, drainage of the soil contribute to the improvement of climatic conditions. This is associated with the destruction of the causative agent of tropical fever – this scourge of hot countries. However, predatory farming, excessive deforestation and uprooting of forests, especially in the foothills and mountains, entail disastrous consequences. Tropical downpours quickly wash away the fertile soil exposed from forest vegetation, leaving behind bare rocks. In loose rocks, rainwater breaks through deep ravines and causes floods and landslides. Only the judicious use of tropical areas can prevent the destruction of the valuable soils of this zone.