All ecosystems existing on Earth are interconnected into a single living shell, which is also an ecosystem.
The biosphere (sphere of life) is the shell of the Earth inhabited by living organisms.
The biosphere is an integral, complexly organized system that develops according to its internal laws and under the influence of external forces, including cosmic ones.
The biosphere is a product of the evolution of the Earth.
The outstanding Russian scientist V. I. Vernadsky, one of the founders of the modern theory of the biosphere, identified the components of the biosphere. The biosphere includes:
- living matter, that is, all living organisms inhabiting the Earth;
- biogenic substance – all substances created in the process of vital activity of living organisms (limestone, peat, coal, oil);
- bioinert substance – a product of the interaction of living organisms with inanimate (inert) nature (soil, silt);
- inert (dead) matter – minerals and rocks formed without the participation of living organisms (diamond, emerald, quartz, marble, granite, etc.).
The composition of the biosphere and its main properties are determined by the interaction of its biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components.
The biosphere is characterized by a variety of natural conditions, depending on the latitude and topography of the area, and on seasonal climate changes. But the main reason for this diversity is the activity of the living organisms themselves.
There is a continuous exchange of substances between organisms and the inanimate nature surrounding them, and therefore different parts of the land and sea differ from each other in physical and chemical indicators.
Scientists believe that from 2 to 5 million species of living organisms live on Earth; each species unites millions and billions of individuals, distributed in a certain way in space. Each species interacts with the environment in its own way. The activity of living organisms creates an amazing variety of nature around us. This diversity serves as a guarantee for the preservation of life on Earth.