Using the example of France, explain the mechanism for the formation of a centralized state. What were the features

Using the example of France, explain the mechanism for the formation of a centralized state. What were the features of the unification processes in other Western European countries?

The unification of France under royal rule began in the first half of the 12th century. The king subdued the feudal lords who owned the lands around Paris. Gradually, the kings extended their power to other territories of France.
In England, a 30-year civil war broke out between the Scarlet and White Rose (1455-1485). The noble family of Tudors won the victory in it. The new king Henry VII Tudor began to brutally suppress the separatism of the feudal lords. The power of the monarch in a centralized state increased.
Italian lands were still fragmented and belonged to different states. The Holy Roman Empire was going through a deep political crisis and actually disintegrated.

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