What are the scientific foundations of Darwin’s doctrine of evolution?

Darwin arrived at the most important concept in his theory of the struggle for existence. Its essence is as follows. Any species is capable of unlimited reproduction. However, only a few individuals survive to maturity, since the resources required for reproduction are limited. As a result, a struggle for existence arises between individuals of both the same species and different species – a complex relationship aimed not only at survival in specific environmental conditions, but also at providing themselves with offspring.
Darwin also formulated the principle of divergence (divergence) of signs – the appearance in a number of generations of ever greater differences in initially slightly different forms. The accumulation of differences over time leads to the emergence of new species.

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