What features underpin ecosystem classification?

In the classification of terrestrial ecosystems, features of plant communities (which form the basis of ecosystems) and climatic (zonal) characters are usually used. So, certain types of ecosystems are distinguished, for example, lichen tundra, moss tundra, coniferous forest (spruce, pine), deciduous forest (birch forest), rain forest (tropical), steppe, shrubs (willow), grassy swamp, sphagnum bog. Often, the classification of natural ecosystems is based on characteristic ecological features of habitats, highlighting communities of sea coasts or shelfs, lakes or ponds, floodplain or upland meadows, rocky or sandy deserts, mountain forests, estuaries (estuaries of large rivers), etc.

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