Which countries of modern Europe were (at different times, in whole or in part) under the rule of Muslims?

Muslims ruled in Spain and Portugal (VIII-XV centuries), in southern France (VIII century), in Sicily and southern Italy (IX-XI centuries), in Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria (XIV-XIX centuries), in Romania (XV -XIX centuries) and Hungary (XVI-XVIII centuries).

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.